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This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License http: This Adult hookers in escuintla has been cited by other articles in PMC. Studies have indicated that having multiple sexual partners may lead Adult hookers in escuintla higher HPV transmission. Thus female sex workers FSWs may be at greater risk of infection compared to the general population. We also examine variations of HPV prevalence and risk behaviors by region. Knowledge of prevalent HPV types in FSWs may lead to improved prevention measures Adult hookers in escuintla assist in understanding vaccination in high-risk groups.
A total of 35 peer-reviewed publications were included in our review. High risk HPV types 16 and 18 ranged from 1. Female sex workers have an overall high prevalence of HPV infection of high-risk types as evident through various testing methods. It is a known causal factor in the development of cervical cancer and genital warts [ 1 ]. The virus is associated with anal, vaginal, penile and oral cancers [ 3 ]. It Adult hookers in escuintla most commonly associated with cervical cancer as the virus causes nearlyincident cases of cervical cancer andcervical cancer deaths annually [ 4 ]. Cervical cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed type of cancer in women worldwide.
Studies have indicated that a high number of lifetime partners may lead to a higher transmission of HPV leading to higher cervical cancer rates [ 6 - 8 ]. A previous studies have reported that FSW had more than twice the probability of having HPV infection than women from the general population and have a higher prevalence of abnormal pap smears [ 910 ]. In addition, HPV can be transmitted from FSWs to the general population through clients thereby increasing the prevalence of the virus. There are currently two approved HPV vaccines on the market. One review reported results from only 2 studies that assessed HPV in this population [ 12 ], whereas the other review focused on FSWs in Asia [ 13 ].
With an understanding of the prevalence of HPV in each region, better screening methods can be developed and utilized that provide more accurate results for the HPV types prevalent in said region. We excluded studies without HPV testing results, type specific prevalence rates or only reported multiple infection prevalence rates. We also excluded studies based on their methodology including studies that tested less than 5 FSWs, tested only HIV positive participants, or used unconventional methods of HPV sample collection tampon. We only included studies that were written in English or Spanish due to the mother tongue of the authors. Original articles that were unavailable, opinion papers, commentaries, case reports, systematic reviews and subsamples from original papers were not reviewed herein, nor were studies that used any method of sample collection other than cervical or vaginal swabs or scrapes.
Additionally, we identified significant references in existing review papers and subsequently excluded the review paper itself. Overall, fourteen papers were excluded because they were in a language other than English or Spanish, the original paper was not available or were out of the predetermined date range. One hundred and thirteen full text manuscripts were screened. Of these, 78 papers were subsequently excluded because they were a commentary or opinion paper, case report, referenced another paper, review paper and we found the original article [ 1214 ], non-relevant review paper, or was a subsample from another paper in our review. We also excluded papers that had no data on female sex workers, an insufficient number of sex workers, used unconventional HPV testing, no data on HPV or type specific results.
A total of 35 eligible manuscripts were included in this review, including four case control studies, one cohort study, and 30 cross sectional studies [ 915 - 48 ]. For this review, studies that reported the prevalence of type specific single infections among FSWs were used.
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We also excluded papers that had no data on female sex workers, an insufficient number of sex workers, used unconventional HPV testing, no data on HPV or type specific results. For this review, studies that reported the prevalence of type specific single infections among FSWs were used.
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A total of 35 peer-reviewed publications were included in our review. This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License http: Knowledge of prevalent HPV types in FSWs may lead to improved prevention measures and assist in understanding vaccination in high-risk groups. It is a known causal factor in the development of cervical cancer and genital warts [ 1 ].